What is the full form of DNA?
Full form of DNA
DNA Full Form is Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Have you ever thought deeply that your body shape, eyes, ears, nose, etc. are similar to your parents, grandparents, and grandparents? Who is responsible for all these similarities? Perhaps you would know that DNA is responsible for all this. Now it comes to know whether the genetic properties can be changed by changing the DNA of a child before its birth. Is it possible to make changes in any DNA that can produce such a right person who is physically and mentally healthy? Lets us, we will discuss all these in detail in this post.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is a group of molecules responsible for transmitting and carrying inherited material or genetic instructions from parents to children, which means that it works to carry genetic traits from one generation to the next. It is an organic compound with a unique molecular structure. It is found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells of all organisms. Swiss biologist Johannes Friedrich Miescher first identified it in 1869 while researching white blood cells and recognized it as DNA.
In 1953, two scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick, together discovered the experimental helix structure of a molecule of DNA using experimental evidence. They were awarded the Nobel Prize of Chemistry for that invention. Later scientific research has found DNA to be primarily responsible for processing human genetic information.
The Structure of DNA
As per scientific research, the structure of DNA is like a twisted ladder. This structure of DNA is defined as a double helix, as shown in the figure above. The basic DNA building blocks are nucleotides made up of carbon-sugar groups, phosphate groups, and nitrogen. Groups of sugar and phosphate bind each of the nucleotides together to form each DNA strand. The nitrogen base has four forms of adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C).
Type of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Different types of DNA
- A – DNA- It is a double helix of the right-hand side, just like the B-DNA form. Dehydrated DNA protects DNA even in extreme cases of indigestion. Its protein binding also removes the solvent from DNA, and DNA takes an A form.
- B – DNA -It is the most common DNA structure and is the right-handed helix. A B type of DNA is formed in most DNA under normal physiological conditions.
- Z – DNA -The left-handed DNA discovered by Andres Wang and Alexander Rich, where the dual-helix wind occurs on the left in a zig-zag pattern. It is believed that it plays some role in gene regulation, as it is found beyond the gene’s starting point.
Functions of DNA
DNA is the genetic material that keeps all the inherited information coded in the structure of nitrogen bases.
- DNA itself gives genetic information to other cells originating from the cell and from one generation to another.
- Each human being has a different DNA sequence, which does not match with others’ DNA. This same property of DNA is used in DNA fingerprinting, a method of identifying a person from DNA.
- DNA affects cells’ metabolic reactions with the help of hormones, enzymes, and specific RNAs.
Can DNA be changed before birth?
Scientific research has proved that genetic properties are transferred from one generation to another through DNA. So, is it possible to change genetic properties by changing DNA? In some research, scientists have claimed that they have succeeded in altering the baby’s DNA inside the fetus. If possible, then children born with congenital diseases like cancer, polio, AIDS, deformity, etc. can be freed by making genetic changes in the DNA. Currently, experiments related to DNA changes have been banned by the world community so that there is no tampering with nature, and no one can benefit from it wrongly.
Does DNA change over time?
Scientific research has also proved that DNA changes over time, but DNA changes occur so slowly that its effect is seen after thousands of years. Scientific researches have shown that the present form of human is the developed form of a monkey. After the gradual changes in DNA, humans have come into the present form. The human body adapts itself to it as it is described in the environment.
Is DNA found in human sweat?
DNA is found in every human being’s cell of our body like skin, blood, flesh, hair, nails, etc. DNA is not found in our body sweat because DNA is an organic material, while sweat is made up of inorganic salt and water elements. No cell of any kind is found in sweat. For this reason, during DNA profiling, nails or blood samples are taken instead of sweat.